Offshore Flight of Buffleheads, Bucephala albeola, After Twilight in Winter: An Anti-Predation Tactic?
Keywords:Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola, timing, crepuscular flight, anti-predation, predator avoidance behaviour, dual habitats, British Columbia
AbstractIn winter, on Vancouver Island, Buffleheads depart from coastal marine feeding habitat shortly after the onset of civil twilight. This precisely-timed phenomenon may have evolved in response to predation pressure from Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus. The dual habitat requirements of Buffleheads in Shoal Harbour Migratory Bird Sanctuary (1931) and Sidney Channel Important Bird Area are to be included within the proposed Gulf Islands National Marine Conservation Area.
Copyright for Canadian Field-Naturalist content is held by the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, except for content published by employees of federal government departments, in which case the copyright is held by the Crown. In-copyright content available at the Biodiversity Heritage Library is available for re-use under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) licence. For usage of content at the BHL for purposes other than those allowed under this licence, contact us.
To request use of copyright material, please contact our editor, Dr. Dwayne Lepitzki: editor -at- canadianfieldnaturalist -dot- ca