https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/issue/feed The Canadian Field-Naturalist 2021-06-23T09:01:07-07:00 William Halliday wdhalliday@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>A peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing ecology, behaviour, taxonomy, conservation, and other topics relevant to Canadian natural history.</p> https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2855 Full Issue PDF 2021-06-23T09:01:07-07:00 Dwayne Lepitzki editor@canadianfieldnaturalist.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2827 News and Comment 2021-06-22T20:50:06-07:00 Amanda Martin canadianfieldnaturalistae@gmail.com 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2813 A tribute to Arthur T. Bergerud, 1930–2019 2021-06-16T09:55:20-07:00 Brian McLaren bmclaren@lakeheadu.ca Heather Butler test@cfn.ca Rick Page test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The authors https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2557 Additions to the lichens, allied fungi, and lichenicolous fungi of the Ottawa region in Ontario and Quebec, with reflections on a changing biota 2020-05-29T09:18:29-07:00 Irwin Brodo ibrodo@sympatico.ca Robert Lee rel@magma.ca Colin Freebury freebury@sympatico.ca Pak Yau Wong pakyauwong@gmail.com Christopher Lewis christopher.j.lewis@gov.bc.ca Troy McMullin tmcmullin@nature.ca <p>The inventory of lichens, allied fungi, and their parasites in the Ottawa region has grown from 391 in 1988 to 543 today, almost entirely because of the discovery of species overlooked in previous years and the inclusion of fungal parasites. In addition, almost 140 names have changed with reclassifications and re-identifications. These changes are presented here together with a list of synonyms updating the 1988 list. Vouchers are cited for all new records, and notes are presented for many species neither described nor keyed out in easily accessible literature. Reference is made to the new, complete list of lichens and lichenicolous fungi available online. The new checklist includes one species new for North America (<em>Tremella christiansenii</em>); five species and one variety new for Canada (<em>Caloplaca parvula, Caloplaca reptans, Cladonia petrophila, Enchylium tenax var. ceranoides, Leprocaulon adhaerens,</em> and<em> Merismatium peregrinum</em>); four new for Ontario (<em>Caloplaca reptans, Kiliasia tristis, Lempholemma chalazanum</em>, and <em>Rinodina fimbriata</em>); and nine new for Quebec (<em>Arthonia helvola, Arthonia hypobela, Caloplaca parvula, Cladonia petrophila, Lempholemma chalazanum, Leprocaulon adhaerens, Merismatium peregrinum, Rimularia badioatra, </em>and <em>Tremella christiansenii</em>). Although the climate of the region is warming, especially with higher minimum temperatures in winter, the lichen biota has not increased as a result but, in fact, may be threatened by the effects of climate change on the health of the forests and the trees that support lichens. Air quality has improved in recent decades, allowing numerous lichens to again become established in urban areas. Local areas of especially rich lichen diversity can be found on both the Ontario and Quebec sides of the region, and some of these “hot-spots” are mentioned. Other factors influencing the decrease or increase of lichen cover are also discussed.</p> 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2617 Loon abundance and behaviour over four decades at a remote ecological reserve on Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada 2020-12-17T11:34:45-08:00 Thomas Reimchen reimchen@uvic.ca Sheila Douglas test@cfn.ca <p>Early studies (1976–1982) of the Drizzle Lake Ecological Reserve on Haida Gwaii, British Columbia focussed on the endemic Giant Threespine Stickleback (<em>Gasterosteus aculeatus</em>) and their predators. These surveys showed daily visits to the small lake (110 ha) by up to 59 adult non-breeding Common Loon (<em>Gavia immer</em>), an important stickleback predator and up to 19 breeding and non-breeding adult Red-throated Loon (<em>Gavia stellata</em>), which leave daily to forage in nearby marine waters. We continued loon surveys for 17 additional years (1983–1989, 2011–2020) and found that aggregations of non-breeding Common Loons occurred annually on the lake during July with maximum daily numbers of 78–83 individuals in 1987, 2018, and 2020 and a large increase from 2011 to 2020. We did not detect any relationship of these differences with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation but a significant inverse correlation with average wind speed. Average yearly numbers of Red-throated Loons declined by 50% from 1976 to 1989 and have remained low, with lowest numbers (&lt;2) occurring in 2017. Two Red-throated Loon nesting territories on the lake were occupied from 1976 to 1995, with chicks occurring in 24 of 36 nests, but no successful nesting was observed on the lake over the last decade. The relative decline of Red-throated Loon in this reserve is similar to that reported in Arctic and Subarctic surveys of the species in the north Pacific and northern Europe. We discuss the implications for the evolutionary ecology of the sticklebacks and the conservation of the ecological reserve.</p> 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2547 Timing of pair formation and male acquisition of alternate plumage by three wintering dabbling ducks 2020-10-03T13:42:18-07:00 Rodger Titman rodger.titman@mcgill.ca Elise Titman test@cfn.ca Shawn Craik test@cfn.ca <p>Pair formation in ducks is thought to be influenced by the acquisition of breeding plumage, the occurrence of courtship display, or both. We examined the frequency of pair formation in Mallard (<em>Anas platyrhynchos</em>), Green-winged Teal (<em>Anas crecca carolinensis</em>), and Northern Shoveler (<em>Spatula clypeata</em>) in the central valley of California in relation to the frequencies of male attainment of breeding plumage and courtship display. Predictions related to two hypotheses are: (1) the timing of pair formation is directly related to the attainment of breeding (definitive alternate) plumage by males, and (2) frequencies of courtship display are highest during pair formation. Most female Mallard were paired by the end of October, with &gt;80% in pairs by early December. Of Northern Shoveler, 90% were paired by early January and 90% of female Green-winged Teal were paired by early February. The highest rates of courtship display by Mallard were observed during October through November, by Northern Shoveler in November, and by Green-winged Teal in November through January. Courtship display was, therefore, relatively frequent at the same time as pair formation for all three species. Northern Shoveler spent less time in courtship display than the other two species. Most (90%) male Mallard had acquired alternate plumage by mid-November, Northern Shoveler by early February, and Green-winged Teal by mid-December. Thus, timing of pair formation coincided with timing of attainment of breeding plumage in Mallard and Green-winged Teal but not Northern Shoveler.</p> 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2607 Terrestrial dispersal of juvenile Mink Frog (<i>Lithobates septentrionalis</i>) in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario 2020-12-10T14:41:38-08:00 David L. LeGros david.legros@ontario.ca David Lesbarrères test@cfn.ca Brad Steinberg test@cfn.ca <p>Dispersal following metamorphosis is critical for sustaining anuran metapopulations. Mink Frog (<em>Lithobates septentrionalis</em>) is a primarily aquatic species that is common in eastern Canada. The species is not well studied, and little is known about the terrestrial dispersal of recently metamorphosed individuals. Here we present our observations on the phenology of terrestrial activity in recently metamorphosed Mink Frogs in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Despite a sampling effort of over 26 000 trap nights over two years (2010 and 2011) in an area with a known population of Mink Frogs, we observed only 35 individuals, all of which were recent metamorphs, in late summer 2011, suggesting annual variability of recruitment. Because all Mink Frogs were observed in a riparian area, it is likely that this species uses riparian corridors to disperse toward other wetlands, thus avoiding forested areas.</p> 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2165 Use of Whitebark Pine (<i>Pinus albicaulis</i>) seeds by GPS-collared Grizzly Bears (<i>Ursus arctos</i>) in Banff National Park, Alberta 2020-07-21T13:39:16-07:00 David Hamer j.david.hamer@gmail.com <p>Seeds of Whitebark Pine (<em>Pinus albicaulis</em>) are a major food for Grizzly Bears (<em>Ursus arctos</em>) in the Yellowstone ecosystem. In Canada, Grizzly Bears are known to eat Whitebark Pine seeds, but little additional information, such as the extent of such use and habitat characteristics of feeding sites, is available. Because Grizzly Bears almost always obtain Whitebark Pine seeds by excavating cones from persistent caching sites (middens) made by Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), it is possible to infer Whitebark Pine feeding when bears are located near excavated middens in Whitebark Pine stands. During 2013–2018, I conducted a retrospective study in Banff National Park using data from 23 Grizzly Bears equipped by Parks Canada staff with global positioning system (GPS) collars. My objectives were to use GPS fixes to determine the percentage of these bears that had been located in close proximity to excavated middens containing Whitebark Pine seeds and to describe the habitat at these excavated middens. I linked 15 bears (65%) to excavated middens and, by inference, consumption of Whitebark Pine seeds. Excavated middens occurred on high-elevation (mean 2103 ± 101 [SD] m), steep (mean 26° ± 8°) slopes facing mostly (96%) north through west (0–270°). Use of Whitebark Pine seeds by at least 65% of the 23 studied Grizzly Bears suggests that conservation of Whitebark Pine in Banff National Park would concomitantly benefit the at-risk population of Grizzly Bears.</p> 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2449 Further occurrences of melanism in a northern, peripheral, population of Bobcat (<i>Lynx rufus</i>) 2020-07-27T11:43:06-07:00 Donald McAlpine donald.mcalpine@nbm-mnb.ca <p>Although melanism is understood to occur commonly among some felids, it is reported to be most frequent among cat species that occur in humid, tropical, and densely vegetated habitats. Previously, a single record of a melanistic Bobcat (<em>Lynx rufus</em>) from eastern Canada (New Brunswick) appeared to be a northern outlier, with all other reports of melanism in this species restricted to the warm, humid, climate of southern peninsular Florida. Here, I document a further five occurrences of melanism in Bobcat from New Brunswick and review evidence that a mutation in an agouti-signalling protein gene may be responsible for melanism in New Brunswick Bobcats.</p> 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The author https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2579 Predation of a brown bat (Vespertilionidae) by a Green Frog (<i>Lithobates clamitans</i>) in Ontario, Canada 2020-09-30T12:21:36-07:00 Christopher Bunt cbunt@biotactic.com Jeremy Webster test@cfn.ca Bailey Jacobson test@cfn.ca Fabio Vilella test@cfn.ca <p>On 31 July 2019, a Green Frog (<em>Lithobates clamitans</em>) was observed consuming a Big Brown Bat (<em>Eptesicus fuscus</em>) at Meux Creek, Neustadt, Ontario. The bat was likely roosting at a nearby undercut bank when it was predated by the frog, which required nearly 90 min to consume its prey. This is the first record of a Green Frog consuming a bat species in Canada.</p> 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2829 Changes to the Book Reviews and New Titles Sections 2021-06-22T20:55:59-07:00 Barry Cottam s.barry.cottam@gmail.com 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2831 "Flora of Oregon. Volume 1: Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Monocots" edited by Stephen C. Myers, Thea Jaster, Katie E. Mitchell, and Linda K. Hardiston, 2015; and "Flora of Oregon. Volume 2: Dicots Aizoaceae - Fagaceae" edited by Stephen C. Myers, Thea Jaster, Katie E. Mitchell, Tanya Harvey, and Linda K. Hardiston, 2020. [book review] 2021-06-22T21:01:20-07:00 Jenifer Penny test@cfn.ca Daniel Brunton test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2833 "Herbarium: The Quest to Preserve & Classify the World’s Plants" by Barbara M. Thiers, 2020. [book review] 2021-06-22T21:07:18-07:00 Paul Catling test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2835 "Grassroots Stewardship: Sustainability Within Our Reach" by F. Stuart Chapin, III, 2020. [book review] 2021-06-22T21:10:17-07:00 Emma Bocking test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2837 "Primer of Ecological Restoration" by Karen D. Holl, 2020. [book review] 2021-06-22T21:13:06-07:00 Heather Cray test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2839 "Pollinators & Pollination: Nature and Society" by Jeff Ollerton, 2021. [book review] 2021-06-22T21:16:45-07:00 Barry Cottam s.barry.cottam@gmail.com 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2841 "Essential Ornithology. Second Edition" by Graham Scott, 2020. [book review] 2021-06-22T21:19:34-07:00 Gavin Charles test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2843 "Flights of Passage: An Illustrated Natural History of Bird Migration" by Mike Unwin and David Tipling, 2020. [book review] 2021-06-22T21:23:46-07:00 Cyndi Smith test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2845 "The Biology of Moult in Birds" by Lukas Jenni and Raffael Winkler, 2020. [book review] 2021-06-22T21:36:14-07:00 Cyndi Smith test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2847 "The World in a Grain: The Story of Sand and How It Transformed Civilization" by Vince Beiser, 2018. [book review] 2021-06-22T21:39:23-07:00 Heather Cray test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2849 New Titles 2021-06-22T21:41:57-07:00 Barry Cottam s.barry.cottam@gmail.com 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2821 Draft Minutes of the 142nd Annual Business Meeting (ABM) of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists’ Club, 12 January 2021 2021-06-22T20:30:37-07:00 Diane Lepage test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2825 Annual Reports of OFNC Committees for October 2019–September 2020 2021-06-22T20:45:03-07:00 Eleanor Zurbrigg test@cfn.ca Bob Cermak test@cfn.ca Owen Clarkin test@cfn.ca Gord Robertson test@cfn.ca Jakob Mueller test@cfn.ca Ken Young test@cfn.ca Ted Farnworth test@cfn.ca Robert Lee test@cfn.ca Henry Steger test@cfn.ca Jeffery Saarela test@cfn.ca Anouk Hoedeman test@cfn.ca Ann MacKenzie test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2823 The Ottawa Field-Naturalists’ Club Awards for 2020 2021-06-22T20:35:37-07:00 Eleanor Zurbrigg test@cfn.ca Irwin Brodo test@cfn.ca Christine Hanrahan test@cfn.ca Karen McLachlan Hamilton test@cfn.ca Lynn Ovenden test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/2851 Cover 2021-06-22T21:44:31-07:00 Dwayne Lepitzki test@cfn.ca 2021-06-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist