Urine-marking and Ground-scratching by Free-ranging Arctic Wolves, Canis lupus arctos, in Summer

L. David Mech

Abstract


Urine-marking and ground-scratching were observed in an Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus) pack on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, during 16 summers between 1986 and 2005. All previously known urination postures and ground-scratching by breeding males and females were seen, and incidence of marking and scratching was greatest when non-pack wolves were present. Observations of urine-marking of food remains supported the conclusion from a captive Wolf study that such marking signals lack of edible food.

Keywords


Arctic Wolf; Canis lupus arctos; ground-scratching; odor; scent-marking; territoriality; urine-marking; Ellesmere Island; Nunavut; Canada

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22621/cfn.v120i4.356



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