Urine-marking and Ground-scratching by Free-ranging Arctic Wolves, Canis lupus arctos, in Summer
Keywords:Arctic Wolf, Canis lupus arctos, ground-scratching, odor, scent-marking, territoriality, urine-marking, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada
AbstractUrine-marking and ground-scratching were observed in an Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus) pack on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, during 16 summers between 1986 and 2005. All previously known urination postures and ground-scratching by breeding males and females were seen, and incidence of marking and scratching was greatest when non-pack wolves were present. Observations of urine-marking of food remains supported the conclusion from a captive Wolf study that such marking signals lack of edible food.
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