Key observations of flexed-leg urination in the free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)
Keywords:Behaviour, Canis lupus, flexed-leg urination, Gray Wolf, pair bonding, scent-marking, territoriality, Yellowstone
Flexed-leg urination (FLU) in female Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) has been little studied in the wild. Captive females in packs do not exhibit FLU unless they are both mature and dominant to an associate female, but these characteristics have not been confirmed in free-ranging wolves. We present observations of wolves in Yellowstone National Park that accord with those of wolves in captivity, extend our knowledge of FLU in Gray Wolf, pose additional questions about it, and suggest new areas of study to better understand it.
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