Clarifying late Holocene Coyote (Canis latrans)–Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) sympatry in the western Great Lake states
Keywords:Coyote (Canis latrans), Gray Wolf (Canis lupus), Great Lakes region, Coyote-wolf hybridization, Coyote-wolf sympatry, Coyote-wolf haplotypes
North American Canis genetics research varies in interpreting the Pre-Columbian distribution of Coyotes (Canis latrans). Many studies have relied on generalized species-distribution maps and a few actually cite earlier genetics works as secondary sources. I use archaeological, paleontological, and settlement era documents to demonstrate that Coyotes were present in portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Illinois thousands of years prior to European arrival. This review provides important clarification of historical Coyote distribution in the region and may have implications on the various interpretations of introgressed Coyote haplotypes present in Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) throughout the Great Lakes region.
Copyright for Canadian Field-Naturalist content is held by the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, except for content published by employees of federal government departments, in which case the copyright is held by the Crown. In-copyright content available at the Biodiversity Heritage Library is available for re-use under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) licence. For usage of content at the BHL for purposes other than those allowed under this licence, contact us.
To request use of copyright material, please contact our editor, Dr. Dwayne Lepitzki: editor -at- canadianfieldnaturalist -dot- ca