The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn <p>A peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing ecology, behaviour, taxonomy, conservation, and other topics relevant to Canadian natural history.</p> en-US <p>Copyright for Canadian Field-Naturalist content is held by the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, except for content published by employees of federal government departments, in which case the copyright is held by the Crown. In-copyright content available at the Biodiversity Heritage Library is available for re-use under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) licence. For usage of content at the BHL for purposes other than those allowed under this licence, contact us.</p><p> </p><div><p>To request use of copyright material, please contact our editor, Dr. Dwayne Lepitzki: editor -at- canadianfieldnaturalist -dot- ca</p></div> wdhalliday@gmail.com (William Halliday) wdhalliday@gmail.com (William Halliday) Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0800 OJS 3.2.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Banded Killifish (<i>Fundulus diaphanus</i>) and Mummichog (<i>Fundulus heteroclitus</i>) distributions in insular Newfoundland waters: implications for a Species at Risk https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2373 <p>Newfoundland’s Banded Killifish (<em>Fundulus diaphanus</em>) population is listed as a species of Special Concern under Canada’s Species at Risk Act and Vulnerable under Newfoundland and Labrador’s Endangered Species Act. Mummichog (<em>Fundulus heteroclitus</em>) is a similar looking fish species and is currently under review by Newfoundland and Labrador’s Species Status Advisory Committee. Both species have limited known distributions in Newfoundland waters that overlap. They may occur sympatrically in estuaries and occasionally hybridize; thus, field identifications can be challenging. We found that dorsal fin position and caudal fin depth were the most useful morphological characters for distinguishing Banded Killifish and Mummichog in the field. We used local ecological knowledge, literature review, museum records, and field surveys to update the known distribution ranges and found both species in more locations than previously documented in Newfoundland. Thus, we extend their known ranges. Our results will be critical in future status assessments of these species in Newfoundland.</p> Philip S. Sargent, Kate L. Dalley, Derek R. Osborne Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2373 Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Habitat use by Veery (<i>Catharus fuscescens</i>) in southern Ontario https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2239 <p>Veery (<em>Catharus fuscescens</em>) is a breeding migrant thrush that nests throughout much of the temperate forests within Canada. Habitat loss and degradation is thought to be responsible for a steady decline in Veery populations since 1970. We studied habitat characteristics of occupied Veery territories versus unoccupied adjacent areas in southern Ontario during the 2016 breeding season. Occupied territories were characterized as riparian deciduous forests dominated by ash (<em>Fraxinus</em> spp.), Black Cherry (<em>Prunus serotina</em>), and Red Maple (<em>Acer rubrum</em>) trees with an understorey of Balsam Fir (<em>Abies balsamea</em>) and ferns (order Polypodiales); the presence of fruit-producing plants such as Riverbank Grape (<em>Vitis riparia</em>) and Bunchberry (<em>Cornus canadensis</em>) also was important.</p> Connor Hawey, Paul Harpley, Rob Milne Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2239 Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Nesting ecology and reuse of nest burrows by Bank Swallow (<i>Riparia riparia</i>) in southern Yukon https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2427 <p>Bank Swallow (&lt;i&gt;Riparia riparia&lt;/i&gt;) is a declining insectivorous bird that nests colonially in near-vertical surfaces, including natural banks along waterways as well as those created by industrial excavation. Several threats are likely contributing to the population decline, conservation measures have been recommended, and monitoring methods have been developed. However, little is known of this species in the extensive boreal portion of its breeding range. To assess whether recommendations developed in southern areas are likely to be effective in a more northerly region, we investigated aspects of the nesting ecology of Bank Swallow in southern Yukon during 2013–2017. Nesting activity occurred between 20 May and 21 August. We found an exceptional abundance of nest burrows in natural riverbanks along 46 km of the Yukon River near Whitehorse (326 burrows/km), but relatively low percent burrow occupancy in both natural and artificial habitats compared to studies from other regions. Year-to-year persistence of nest burrows and rates of reuse of burrows were high compared to other studies. We highlight the potential importance of the boreal region for recovery of Bank Swallow in Canada, and the importance of using region-specific estimates of percent occupancy when monitoring Bank Swallow using burrow counts. Further study is needed to determine whether unoccupied burrows contribute to nesting success, and whether there are situations in which Bank Swallow burrows should be protected year-round instead of only during nesting.</p> Pamela H. Sinclair, Marty D. Mossop, Shannon A. Stotyn Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2427 Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Functional Changes to the Slate Islands Provincial Park Ecosystem with Successive Arrival of Wolves, Canis lupus, from the Lake Superior Coast https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/1964 Observations from 1974-2016 of Caribou (<em>Rangifer tarandus</em>) on the archipelago that comprises Slate Islands Provincial Park allowed us to infer direct and indirect effects of the arrival of Wolf (<em>Canis lupus</em>) pairs in winters of 1993-94 and 2003-04. Wolves created conditions that led to the near demise of Caribou from the islands, including some, but not all, behavioural changes in Caribou consistent with avoiding predators. Caribou on SIPP did not appear to return to calving locations near shoreline areas, nor use them to escape from Wolves by entering water. Shorelines and locations of Patterson Island near a Wolf-occupied Red Fox (<em>Vulpes vulpes</em>) den were the most common Caribou kill locations. Wolves also functionally shifted the ecosystem in Slate Islands Provincial Park via direct and indirect effects on North American Beavers (<em>Castor canadensis</em>), Red Foxes and Snowshoe Hares (<em>Lepus americanus</em>). Arthur T. Bergerud, Brian E. McLaren, William Dalton, Lo Camps, Heather Butler, Rodger S. Ferguson Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/1964 Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Diel activity patterns of urban Woodchucks (<i>Marmota monax</i>) revealed by camera traps at burrows in southwestern Ontario, Canada https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2110 <p>Animals display a range of diurnal and nocturnal activity patterns and, among mammals, a high proportion of species are crepuscular or nocturnal. Daily activities are often endogenous and oscillate on a light:dark regime. Such cycles are referred to as ‘circadian’ and are generally influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. I investigated the daily activity of urban Woodchucks (<em>Marmota monax</em>) by using 24-hour camera traps at backyard burrows in London, Ontario, Canada, in June. Cameras enabled the collection of data that would otherwise have been labour intensive by direct observation. Statistical modelling showed that Woodchucks exhibited a strictly diurnal activity pattern. The unimodal activity pattern started at sunrise and ended before sunset. The general daily activity trend was similar to the pattern described by others who used direct observations and telemetry to monitor Woodchucks in more rural settings. Temperature and wind were not included in the best-fit model. Camera trapping is a non-invasive method that could give insight to diel activity as it can easily monitor extended periods and reduce the effort required by direct observation.</p> Ronny Steen Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2110 Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Year-round patterns of mineral lick use by Moose (<i>Alces americanus</i>), deer, and Elk (<i>Cervus canadensis</i>) in north-central British Columbia https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2485 <p>Natural mineral licks are important to the physiological ecology of several species of ungulates in North America and abroad. Information on year-round patterns of mineral lick use by ungulates in Canada is poorly understood. We used camera traps to record patterns of mineral lick use by four ungulate species visiting five naturally occurring mineral licks located within the John Prince Research Forest and surrounding area, near Fort St. James, British Columbia, Canada. Our cameras detected over 1800 mineral lick visits by ungulates from February 2017 to January 2018. Mineral licks were visited year-round, however, most visits were made between May and September during morning hours. We observed variable lick visitations among sites, species, and sex and age classes. The species observed in descending number of lick visits included Moose (<em>Alces americanus</em>), White-tailed Deer (<em>Odocoileus virginianus</em>), Elk (<em>Cervus canadensis</em>), and Mule Deer (<em>Odocoileus hemionus</em>). Some licks were visited by all four species, while others were visited by fewer. Female ungulates were recorded at licks more frequently than males or juveniles, which likely reflected the underlying sex and age structure of the population. Elk spent more time at licks than Moose and deer and there was no difference in visit durations between Moose and deer. Most visits were made by single animals, but group visits were also observed. Our findings provide evidence that mineral licks are used year-round by ungulates and appear to be important habitat features on the landscape.</p> Carolyn Brianna Brochez, Roy V. Rea, Shannon M. Crowley, Dexter P. Hodder Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2485 Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0800 News and Comment https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2751 Amanda E. Martin Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2751 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Carolyn Callaghan—stop stepping down! https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2753 Paul Catling Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2753 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Dan Brunton steps down from the Ottawa Field Naturalists’ Club Publications Committee after many years of service https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2755 Amanda E. Martin Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2755 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 In Memoriam: Ronald E. Bedford (26 June 1930–3 November 2020) https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2757 Dwayne A.W. Lepitzki Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2757 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 In Memoriam: Donald A. Smith (29 August 1930–13 November 2020) https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2759 Dwayne A.W. Lepitzki Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2759 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Full Issue PDF https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2765 Dwayne Lepitzki Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2765 Wed, 24 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 A tribute to Paul-Michael Brunelle, odonatologist, 1952–2020 https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2711 Donald F. McAlpine Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2711 Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Index to Volume 134 https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2761 William Halliday Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2761 Wed, 24 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Epimeletic behaviour in a Southern Resident Killer Whale (<i>Orcinus orca</i>) https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2555 <p>Southern Resident Killer Whale (SRKW, <em>Orcinus orca</em>) may be found year round in the Salish Sea. These orcas comprise three matrilineal pods (J, K, and L) and were listed as Endangered under the Canadian Species at Risk Act in 2003 and under the United States Endangered Species Act in 2005 because of prey scarcity, vessel noise and disturbance, small population size, and exposure to toxins. Since 1993, the Whale Museum has been operating Soundwatch, a boater education program for vessels. Soundwatch personnel are on the water in the central Salish Sea throughout the summer educating boaters on how to maneuver near marine mammals legally and documenting vessel regulation violations and marine mammal presence and behaviour. Starting on 24 July 2018, Soundwatch documented an adult female SRKW of J pod (J35) carrying a dead neonate calf. J35 continued to carry her dead calf for 17 consecutive days covering ~1600 km. Her story riveted the attention of the people of the Salish Sea as well as people around the world, evoking empathy for J35 and her loss as well as the plight of the Endangered SRKW population. Here, we tell her story and evaluate whether the behaviour J35 displayed toward her dead calf was an example of epimeletic behaviour, animal grief.</p> Taylor Shedd, Allison Northey, Shawn Larson Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2555 Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0800 Introduction of Southern White River Crayfish (<i>Procambarus zonangulus</i>) to New Brunswick https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2575 <p>Southern White River Crayfish (<em>Procambarus zonangulus</em>), an aquatic, potentially invasive species, is documented from New Brunswick for the first time. It was found in a small, privately owned, lake in the Saint John River system that was apparently stocked for recreational purposes with non-native fish and the crayfish. <em>Procambarus zonangulus</em> has successfully overwintered at the site for at least a year and, more likely, for several years. This is the third species of non-native crayfish recorded in New Brunswick, joining Spiny-cheeked Crayfish (<em>Faxonius limosus</em>) and Virile Crayfish (<em>Faxonius virilis</em>). This is also the first persisting introduction for the genus <em>Procambarus</em> in Canada of which we are aware.</p> Donald F. McAlpine, Christopher B. Connell, Pamela D. Seymour Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2575 Fri, 12 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0800 "The Wildlife Techniques Manual (Eighth Edition). Volume 1 – Research. Volume 2 – Management" edited by Nova J. Silvy, 2020. [book review] https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2733 Graham J. Forbes Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2733 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 "Waterfowl of Eastern North America. Second Edition" by Chris G. Earley, 2020. [book review] https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2735 Robert Alvo Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2735 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 "The Bowhead Whale <i>Balaena mysticetus</i>: Biology and Human Interactions" edited by J.C. George and J.G.M. Thewissen, 2020. [book review] https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2737 William D. Halliday, Nikoletta Diogou, Annika F. Heimrich, Morgan J. Martin Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2737 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 "The Reign of Wolf 21: The Saga of Yellowstone’s Legendary Druid Pack" by Rick McIntyre, 2020. [book review] https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2739 Jonathan Way Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2739 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 "Wolf Island: Discovering the Secrets of a Mythic Animal" by L. David Mech and Greg Breining, 2020. [book review] https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2741 Jonathan Way Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2741 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 "Brave New Arctic: The Untold Story of the Melting North" by Mark C. Serreze, 2018. [book review] https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2743 William D. Halliday Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2743 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 "Horizon" by Barry Lopez, 2019. [book review] https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2745 Brent Tegler Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2745 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Books in Brief https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2747 Barry Cottam Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2747 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 New Titles https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2749 Barry Cottam Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2749 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Cover https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2763 Dwayne Lepitzki Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2763 Wed, 24 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700