https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/issue/feed The Canadian Field-Naturalist 2021-03-24T10:49:06-07:00 William Halliday wdhalliday@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>A peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing ecology, behaviour, taxonomy, conservation, and other topics relevant to Canadian natural history.</p> https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2373 Banded Killifish (<i>Fundulus diaphanus</i>) and Mummichog (<i>Fundulus heteroclitus</i>) distributions in insular Newfoundland waters: implications for a Species at Risk 2020-10-21T16:36:56-07:00 Philip S. Sargent philip.sargent@dfo-mpo.gc.ca Kate L. Dalley kate.dalley@dfo-mpo.gc.ca Derek R. Osborne derek.osborne@dfo-mpo.gc.ca <p>Newfoundland’s Banded Killifish (<em>Fundulus diaphanus</em>) population is listed as a species of Special Concern under Canada’s Species at Risk Act and Vulnerable under Newfoundland and Labrador’s Endangered Species Act. Mummichog (<em>Fundulus heteroclitus</em>) is a similar looking fish species and is currently under review by Newfoundland and Labrador’s Species Status Advisory Committee. Both species have limited known distributions in Newfoundland waters that overlap. They may occur sympatrically in estuaries and occasionally hybridize; thus, field identifications can be challenging. We found that dorsal fin position and caudal fin depth were the most useful morphological characters for distinguishing Banded Killifish and Mummichog in the field. We used local ecological knowledge, literature review, museum records, and field surveys to update the known distribution ranges and found both species in more locations than previously documented in Newfoundland. Thus, we extend their known ranges. Our results will be critical in future status assessments of these species in Newfoundland.</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2239 Habitat use by Veery (<i>Catharus fuscescens</i>) in southern Ontario 2020-10-02T16:54:37-07:00 Connor Hawey connorhawey@gmail.com Paul Harpley paul@harpley.ca Rob Milne rmilne@wlu.ca <p>Veery (<em>Catharus fuscescens</em>) is a breeding migrant thrush that nests throughout much of the temperate forests within Canada. Habitat loss and degradation is thought to be responsible for a steady decline in Veery populations since 1970. We studied habitat characteristics of occupied Veery territories versus unoccupied adjacent areas in southern Ontario during the 2016 breeding season. Occupied territories were characterized as riparian deciduous forests dominated by ash (<em>Fraxinus</em> spp.), Black Cherry (<em>Prunus serotina</em>), and Red Maple (<em>Acer rubrum</em>) trees with an understorey of Balsam Fir (<em>Abies balsamea</em>) and ferns (order Polypodiales); the presence of fruit-producing plants such as Riverbank Grape (<em>Vitis riparia</em>) and Bunchberry (<em>Cornus canadensis</em>) also was important.</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2427 Nesting ecology and reuse of nest burrows by Bank Swallow (<i>Riparia riparia</i>) in southern Yukon 2020-08-27T15:58:40-07:00 Pamela H. Sinclair pam.sinclair@canada.ca Marty D. Mossop marty.mossop@canada.ca Shannon A. Stotyn shannon.stotyn@canada.ca <p>Bank Swallow (&lt;i&gt;Riparia riparia&lt;/i&gt;) is a declining insectivorous bird that nests colonially in near-vertical surfaces, including natural banks along waterways as well as those created by industrial excavation. Several threats are likely contributing to the population decline, conservation measures have been recommended, and monitoring methods have been developed. However, little is known of this species in the extensive boreal portion of its breeding range. To assess whether recommendations developed in southern areas are likely to be effective in a more northerly region, we investigated aspects of the nesting ecology of Bank Swallow in southern Yukon during 2013–2017. Nesting activity occurred between 20 May and 21 August. We found an exceptional abundance of nest burrows in natural riverbanks along 46 km of the Yukon River near Whitehorse (326 burrows/km), but relatively low percent burrow occupancy in both natural and artificial habitats compared to studies from other regions. Year-to-year persistence of nest burrows and rates of reuse of burrows were high compared to other studies. We highlight the potential importance of the boreal region for recovery of Bank Swallow in Canada, and the importance of using region-specific estimates of percent occupancy when monitoring Bank Swallow using burrow counts. Further study is needed to determine whether unoccupied burrows contribute to nesting success, and whether there are situations in which Bank Swallow burrows should be protected year-round instead of only during nesting.</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/1964 Functional Changes to the Slate Islands Provincial Park Ecosystem with Successive Arrival of Wolves, Canis lupus, from the Lake Superior Coast 2020-10-07T14:00:34-07:00 Arthur T. Bergerud atbergerud@live.com Brian E. McLaren bmclaren@lakeheadu.ca William Dalton bill.dalton@ontario.ca Lo Camps information@naturetrek.ca Heather Butler test@cfn.ca Rodger S. Ferguson rferguson@neenahpaper.com Observations from 1974-2016 of Caribou (<em>Rangifer tarandus</em>) on the archipelago that comprises Slate Islands Provincial Park allowed us to infer direct and indirect effects of the arrival of Wolf (<em>Canis lupus</em>) pairs in winters of 1993-94 and 2003-04. Wolves created conditions that led to the near demise of Caribou from the islands, including some, but not all, behavioural changes in Caribou consistent with avoiding predators. Caribou on SIPP did not appear to return to calving locations near shoreline areas, nor use them to escape from Wolves by entering water. Shorelines and locations of Patterson Island near a Wolf-occupied Red Fox (<em>Vulpes vulpes</em>) den were the most common Caribou kill locations. Wolves also functionally shifted the ecosystem in Slate Islands Provincial Park via direct and indirect effects on North American Beavers (<em>Castor canadensis</em>), Red Foxes and Snowshoe Hares (<em>Lepus americanus</em>). 2021-03-12T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2110 Diel activity patterns of urban Woodchucks (<i>Marmota monax</i>) revealed by camera traps at burrows in southwestern Ontario, Canada 2020-07-26T15:11:59-07:00 Ronny Steen ronny.steen@nmbu.no <p>Animals display a range of diurnal and nocturnal activity patterns and, among mammals, a high proportion of species are crepuscular or nocturnal. Daily activities are often endogenous and oscillate on a light:dark regime. Such cycles are referred to as ‘circadian’ and are generally influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. I investigated the daily activity of urban Woodchucks (<em>Marmota monax</em>) by using 24-hour camera traps at backyard burrows in London, Ontario, Canada, in June. Cameras enabled the collection of data that would otherwise have been labour intensive by direct observation. Statistical modelling showed that Woodchucks exhibited a strictly diurnal activity pattern. The unimodal activity pattern started at sunrise and ended before sunset. The general daily activity trend was similar to the pattern described by others who used direct observations and telemetry to monitor Woodchucks in more rural settings. Temperature and wind were not included in the best-fit model. Camera trapping is a non-invasive method that could give insight to diel activity as it can easily monitor extended periods and reduce the effort required by direct observation.</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2485 Year-round patterns of mineral lick use by Moose (<i>Alces americanus</i>), deer, and Elk (<i>Cervus canadensis</i>) in north-central British Columbia 2020-07-04T16:50:46-07:00 Carolyn Brianna Brochez Brianna.Brochez@alumni.unbc.ca Roy V. Rea reav@unbc.ca Shannon M. Crowley Shannon.Crowley@unbc.ca Dexter P. Hodder dexter@johnprinceresearchforest.com <p>Natural mineral licks are important to the physiological ecology of several species of ungulates in North America and abroad. Information on year-round patterns of mineral lick use by ungulates in Canada is poorly understood. We used camera traps to record patterns of mineral lick use by four ungulate species visiting five naturally occurring mineral licks located within the John Prince Research Forest and surrounding area, near Fort St. James, British Columbia, Canada. Our cameras detected over 1800 mineral lick visits by ungulates from February 2017 to January 2018. Mineral licks were visited year-round, however, most visits were made between May and September during morning hours. We observed variable lick visitations among sites, species, and sex and age classes. The species observed in descending number of lick visits included Moose (<em>Alces americanus</em>), White-tailed Deer (<em>Odocoileus virginianus</em>), Elk (<em>Cervus canadensis</em>), and Mule Deer (<em>Odocoileus hemionus</em>). Some licks were visited by all four species, while others were visited by fewer. Female ungulates were recorded at licks more frequently than males or juveniles, which likely reflected the underlying sex and age structure of the population. Elk spent more time at licks than Moose and deer and there was no difference in visit durations between Moose and deer. Most visits were made by single animals, but group visits were also observed. Our findings provide evidence that mineral licks are used year-round by ungulates and appear to be important habitat features on the landscape.</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2751 News and Comment 2021-03-22T20:49:40-07:00 Amanda E. Martin test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2753 Carolyn Callaghan—stop stepping down! 2021-03-22T20:54:13-07:00 Paul Catling test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2755 Dan Brunton steps down from the Ottawa Field Naturalists’ Club Publications Committee after many years of service 2021-03-22T20:58:41-07:00 Amanda E. Martin test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2757 In Memoriam: Ronald E. Bedford (26 June 1930–3 November 2020) 2021-03-22T21:01:29-07:00 Dwayne A.W. Lepitzki test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2759 In Memoriam: Donald A. Smith (29 August 1930–13 November 2020) 2021-03-22T21:04:06-07:00 Dwayne A.W. Lepitzki test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2765 Full Issue PDF 2021-03-24T10:49:06-07:00 Dwayne Lepitzki test@cfn.ca 2021-03-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2711 A tribute to Paul-Michael Brunelle, odonatologist, 1952–2020 2021-01-20T15:56:17-08:00 Donald McAlpine donald.mcalpine@nbm-mnb.ca 2021-03-12T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2761 Index to Volume 134 2021-03-24T08:44:26-07:00 William Halliday wdhalliday@gmail.com 2021-03-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2555 Epimeletic behaviour in a Southern Resident Killer Whale (<i>Orcinus orca</i>) 2020-10-21T10:57:42-07:00 Taylor Shedd taylor@whalemuseum.org Allison Northey test@cfn.ca Shawn Larson test@cfn.ca <p>Southern Resident Killer Whale (SRKW, <em>Orcinus orca</em>) may be found year round in the Salish Sea. These orcas comprise three matrilineal pods (J, K, and L) and were listed as Endangered under the Canadian Species at Risk Act in 2003 and under the United States Endangered Species Act in 2005 because of prey scarcity, vessel noise and disturbance, small population size, and exposure to toxins. Since 1993, the Whale Museum has been operating Soundwatch, a boater education program for vessels. Soundwatch personnel are on the water in the central Salish Sea throughout the summer educating boaters on how to maneuver near marine mammals legally and documenting vessel regulation violations and marine mammal presence and behaviour. Starting on 24 July 2018, Soundwatch documented an adult female SRKW of J pod (J35) carrying a dead neonate calf. J35 continued to carry her dead calf for 17 consecutive days covering ~1600 km. Her story riveted the attention of the people of the Salish Sea as well as people around the world, evoking empathy for J35 and her loss as well as the plight of the Endangered SRKW population. Here, we tell her story and evaluate whether the behaviour J35 displayed toward her dead calf was an example of epimeletic behaviour, animal grief.</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2575 Introduction of Southern White River Crayfish (<i>Procambarus zonangulus</i>) to New Brunswick 2020-06-30T14:10:45-07:00 Donald F. McAlpine donald.mcalpine@nbm-mnb.ca Christopher B. Connell Chris.connell@gnb.ca Pamela D. Seymour Pam.seymour@gnb.ca <p>Southern White River Crayfish (<em>Procambarus zonangulus</em>), an aquatic, potentially invasive species, is documented from New Brunswick for the first time. It was found in a small, privately owned, lake in the Saint John River system that was apparently stocked for recreational purposes with non-native fish and the crayfish. <em>Procambarus zonangulus</em> has successfully overwintered at the site for at least a year and, more likely, for several years. This is the third species of non-native crayfish recorded in New Brunswick, joining Spiny-cheeked Crayfish (<em>Faxonius limosus</em>) and Virile Crayfish (<em>Faxonius virilis</em>). This is also the first persisting introduction for the genus <em>Procambarus</em> in Canada of which we are aware.</p> 2021-03-12T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2733 "The Wildlife Techniques Manual (Eighth Edition). Volume 1 – Research. Volume 2 – Management" edited by Nova J. Silvy, 2020. [book review] 2021-03-22T19:58:00-07:00 Graham J. Forbes test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2735 "Waterfowl of Eastern North America. Second Edition" by Chris G. Earley, 2020. [book review] 2021-03-22T20:03:51-07:00 Robert Alvo test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2737 "The Bowhead Whale <i>Balaena mysticetus</i>: Biology and Human Interactions" edited by J.C. George and J.G.M. Thewissen, 2020. [book review] 2021-03-22T20:10:01-07:00 William D. Halliday wdhalliday@gmail.com Nikoletta Diogou test@cfn.ca Annika F. Heimrich test@cfn.ca Morgan J. Martin test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2739 "The Reign of Wolf 21: The Saga of Yellowstone’s Legendary Druid Pack" by Rick McIntyre, 2020. [book review] 2021-03-22T20:14:24-07:00 Jonathan Way test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2741 "Wolf Island: Discovering the Secrets of a Mythic Animal" by L. David Mech and Greg Breining, 2020. [book review] 2021-03-22T20:25:11-07:00 Jonathan Way test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2743 "Brave New Arctic: The Untold Story of the Melting North" by Mark C. Serreze, 2018. [book review] 2021-03-22T20:27:57-07:00 William D. Halliday wdhalliday@gmail.com 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2745 "Horizon" by Barry Lopez, 2019. [book review] 2021-03-22T20:37:15-07:00 Brent Tegler test@cfn.ca 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2747 Books in Brief 2021-03-22T20:41:07-07:00 Barry Cottam s.barry.cottam@gmail.com 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2749 New Titles 2021-03-22T20:45:52-07:00 Barry Cottam s.barry.cottam@gmail.com 2021-03-22T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist https://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/cfn/index.php/cfn/article/view/2763 Cover 2021-03-24T08:47:11-07:00 Dwayne Lepitzki test@cfn.ca 2021-03-24T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Canadian Field-Naturalist